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lundi 7 mars 2016

Desalination Seawater Vacuum low Temperature

Desalination Seawater Vacuum at low Temperature 

Desalination of seawater is a process that provides freshwater, its usefulness is necessary well established; its main drawback is its hunger for energy. There are two main methods, distillation and reverse osmosis:  These both techniques, booming (average energy cost (≈ 4.5  kWh / m3 /250 gal. ) are a proven systems that has shown their reliability.( Wikipedia) 

Desalination of sea water is a process that provides fresh water, its usefulness is well established; there are two main methods, distillation and reverse osmosis; both techniques were booming a major drawback: the cost to the operation which is very energy-intensive. Average energy cost (≈ 4.5 kWh / m3 / 264 gallons). (Wikipedia)
Here is a project of desalination of sea water, which can significantly reduce the price of the produced fresh water.
This method is based on using a vacuum associated with seawater low boiling temperature, about 50 ° C. (120 ° F). The condensation temperature is about 25 ° C. (77 ° F.).

Note:
Boil water at 25 ° C (77 ° F) under vacuum is the work of the ingenious  Georges Claude in 1930. 

I only adapt his exploit to technology and know-how of today, defining in detail the technical feasibility and demonstrating the economic viability of the process.

This task may be performed by:

1. Thermal solar panels.
2. The regenerative thermal energy (cogeneration) usually wasted by the condensation device, coastal Thermo-electric plants.
3. The regenerative thermal energy (cogeneration) usually wasted by cooling devices, thermal motor drives, on boats, ships or submarines, etc.

The main components are:
Seawater pump 1; Seawater filter 2; sea ​​water tank 3; (These three components are similar to the usual classical devices). Tank warm sea water 4; soft tank condensation of fresh water 5; Freshwater castle 6; input heating circuit 7; circulation pumps 8a, 8b; Fresh water pump 9; fluid detectors 10; solenoid valves 11 a, 11 b; sea ​​water pump 12; Unidirectional valves 13 a- A 13 b; 14 vacuum pump, the vacuum can be performed by a conventional vacuum pump or an alternative element that will be defined later characterized in particular by its low cost and its paltry energy consumption.
The seawater desalination device under vacuum at low temperature, integrates science, technology, techniques and know-how today. It is very effective in terms of energy consumption; Pump pressure is less than 1 ≤1, 1 bar (psi ≤ 16). In practice, it can range from 0.2 to a bar.

See the schematic drawing.
  • Operation:
    Sea water pumps 1; the seawater filter 2; sea ​​water tank 3; (No significant change, with conventional devices). Fluid in the circuit 7, powered by solar panels and / or cogeneration systems; Pump 8 has lead the cold sea water to the tank 4, via condensation tank 5; seawater pump 12 expelling the concentrated salt water back to the sea and / or the crystallization apparatus (product of salt of very good quality).
    All detectors fluids 10, temperature sensors, pressure sensors, fluid levels, range of vacuum; electric valves; Water pumps; Timing; sequencer; emptied non-condensable vapors; hunt the concentrated salt water; reduces the migration of sea water to fresh water, etc. ... transmit data to the electronic controller (home) to ensure optimal...
    Application:

    Clean ecological and economic way to convert sea water into fresh water.

    1. Solar energy Thermal panels. 

    2. The thermal energy (cogeneration) generative, usually wasted by coastal power plants.

    3. The regenerative thermal energy (cogeneration) usually wasted on board Boats, ships, vessels and submarines, etc.